Austenitic stainless steel (SUS316L) was used as material of the specimen. Tensile deformation was applied to the plate specimen, the range of plastic strains was from 0% to 55%. The Vickers hardness of the specimens corresponded to the plastic strain. The residual macrostress was measured by Mn-Kα radiations. The residual macrostress of the annealed specimen had a small compression and changed into a tension after tensile plastic deformation. The specimen with 1% plastic strain showed the maximum tensile residual stress. To investigate the dependency of the residual stress on the diffraction plane, the residual microstresses for each diffraction plane were measured by hard synchrotron X-rays. The residual microstress arose from tensile plastic deformation, because the austenitic stainless steel has large elastic anisotropy as compared with other metals. The residual microstress can be related with the value of Young’s modulus which was calculated by Kroner model.