Austenitic stainless steel (SUS316L) was used as material of the specimen, The specimens were given tensile plastic deformation, the range of plastic strains was from 0% to 55%. The Vickers hardness and FWHM of the specimens corresponded to t he plastic strain, The residual macro-stress was measured by MnKa radiations. The residual macro-stress of the annealed specimen had a small compression and changed into a tension after tensile plastic deformation. The specimen with 1% plasti c strain showed the maximum tensile residual stress. To investigate the dependency on the lattice plane of the residual stress, the residual micro-stress for each lattice plane' was measured by hard synchrotron X-rays. The residual micro-stre ss arose from plastic deformation, because the austenitic stainless steel has large elastic anisotropy as compared with other metals. The residual inicro-stress was related in the value of Young's modulus which was calculated by Kroner model.